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theories and models
King's Theory of Goal Attainment
Theorist : Imogene King - born in 1923.
Bachelor in science of nursing from St. Louis University in
Master of science in nursing from St. Louis University in
Doctorate from Teacher’s college, Columbia University.
Theory describes a dynamic, interpersonal relationship in
which a person grows and develops to attain certain life
Factors which affects the attainment of goal are: roles,
stress, space & time
Nursing focus is the care of human being
Nursing goal is the health care of individuals & groups
Human beings: are open systems interacting constantly with
Basic assumption of goal attainment theory is that nurse and
client communicate information, set goal mutually and then act
to attain those goals, is also the basic assumption of nursing
“Each human being perceives the world as a total person in
making transactions with individuals and things in
“Transaction represents a life situation in which perceiver
& thing perceived are encountered and in which person
enters the situation as an active participant and each is
changed in the process of these experiences”
Concepts are given for each system
Concepts for Personal System
Growth & development
Concepts for Interpersonal System
Concepts for Social System
Propositions of King’s Theory
If perceptual interaction accuracy is present in
nurse-client interactions, transaction will occur
If nurse and client make transaction, goal will be attained
If goal are attained, satisfaction will occur
If transactions are made in nurse-client interactions,
growth & development will be enhanced
If role expectations and role performance as perceived by
nurse & client are congruent, transaction will occur
If role conflict is experienced by nurse or client or both,
stress in nurse-client interaction will occur
If nurse with special knowledge skill communicate
appropriate information to client, mutual goal setting and
goal attainment will occur.
Human being or person refers to social being who are
rational and sentient.
Person has ability to :
select means to achieve goals and
to make decision
Human being has three fundamental needs:
The need for the health information that is
unable at the time when it is needed and can be used
The need for care that seek to prevent illness, and
The need for care when human beings are unable to help
Health involves dynamic life experiences of a human being,
which implies continuous adjustment to stressors in the
internal and external environment through optimum use of one’s
resources to achieve maximum potential for daily living.
Environment is the background for human interactions.
Internal environment: transforms energy to enable person
to adjust to continuous external environmental changes.
External environment: involves formal and informal
organizations. Nurse is a part of the patient’s
Definition: “A process of action, reaction
and interaction by which nurse and client share information
about their perception in nursing situation.” and “ a process
of human interactions between nurse and client whereby each
perceives the other and the situation, and through
communication, they set goals, explore means, and agree on
means to achieve goals.”
Action: is defined as a sequence of
behaviors involving mental and physical action.
Reaction: which is considered as included
in the sequence of behaviors described in action.
In addition, king discussed:
(b) domain and
(c) functions of professional nurse
Goal of nurse: “To help individuals to
maintain their health so they can function in their roles.”
Domain of nurse: “includes
promoting, maintaining, and restoring health, and caring for
the sick, injured and dying.
Function of professional nurse: “To
interpret information in nursing process to plan, implement
and evaluate nursing care..
of Goal Attainment and Nursing Process
Assessment occur during interaction.
The nurse brings special knowledge and skills whereas
client brings knowledge of self and perception of problems of
concern, to this interaction.
During assessment nurse collects data regarding client
(his/her growth & development, perception of self and
current health status, roles etc.)
Perception is the base for collection and interpretation of
Communication is required to verify accuracy of perception,
for interaction and transaction.
The data collected by assessment are used to make nursing
diagnosis in nursing process.
In process of attaining goal the nurse identifies the
problems, concerns and disturbances about which person seek
After diagnosis, planning for interventions to solve those
problems is done.
In goal attainment planning is represented by setting goals
and making decisions about and being agreed on the means to
This part of transaction and client’s participation is
encouraged in making decision on the means to achieve the
In nursing process implementation involves the actual
activities to achieve the goals.
In goal attainment it is the continuation of transaction.
It involves to finding out whether goals are achieved or
In king description evaluation speaks about attainment of
goal and effectiveness of nursing care.
Nursing Process and Theory of Goal Attainment
Nursing process method
Nursing process theory
A system of oriented actions
A system of oriented concepts
Perception, communication and interaction of nurse
Decision making about the goals
Be agree on the means to attain the goals
Alligood M.R, Tomey. A.M. Nursing theory
utilization and application. 2nd Ed. Mosby,
George B. Julia , Nursing Theories- The
base for professional Nursing Practice , 3rd ed. Norwalk,
Appleton & Lange.