"This stage, therefore, becomes decisive
for the ratio between loving good will and hateful
self-insistence, between cooperation and willfulness, and
between self-expression and compulsive self-restraint or
meek compliance." - Erikson
This oral-sensory stage of infancy, marked
by the potential development of basic trust aiming toward
the achievement of a sense of hope.
Here, the child will develop an appropriate
sense of autonomy, otherwise doubt and shame will undermine
An individual who becomes fixated at the
transition between the development of hope and autonomous
will, with its residue of mistrust and doubt, may develop
paranoic fears of persecution (Newton DS, Newton PM, 1998).
Other disturbances of improper transition
of this stage results in perfectionism, inflexibility,
stinginess and ruminative and ritualistic behavior of
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
Erikson E: Childhood and Society. Norton,
New York, 1950.
Erikson E: The dream specimen of
psychoanalysis. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2:5, 1954.
Erikson E: The first psychoanalyst. Yale
Rev 46:40, 1956.
Erikson E: Freud's "The Origins of
Psychoanalysis." Int J Psychoanal 36:1, 1955.
Erikson E: Gandhi's Truth. Norton, New
Erikson E: Hitler's imagery and German
youth. Psychiatry 5:475, 1942.
Erikson E: Identity and the Life Cycle.
Norton, New York, 1980.
Erikson E: Identity: Youth and Crisis.
Norton, New York, 1968.
Erikson E: Insight and Responsibility.
Norton, New York, 1964.
Erikson E: Life History and the Historical
Moment. Norton, New York, 1975.
Erikson E: Observations on Sioux education.
J Psychol 7:101, 1939.
Erikson E: The problem of ego identity.
Psychol Issues 1:379, 1959.
Erikson E: Young Man Luther. Norton, New
Erikson E, Erikson J, Kivnick H: Vital
Involvement in Old Age. Norton, New York, 1986.